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Cockburn, Sir George - History

Cockburn, Sir George - History

Cockburn, Sir George [Baronet] (1772-1853) British Admiral: George Cockburn was born in London, England, on April 22, 1772. He joined the British Navy at the age of nine, serving in East India, Britain and the Mediterranean. By 1795, he had become a post-captain. In 1809, the House of Commons thanked him for his services commanding the naval forces in the maneuvers that led to Britain acquiring Martinique, a French colony in the Caribbean. In 1811, he was sent on a mission to reconcile Spain with her American colonies, which proved unsuccessful. In 1812, Cockburn became a rear admiral, and was a major figure in the War of 1812. He sent expeditions from Lynn Haven Bay to various locations, causing a great deal of property and other damage. In 1814, he took part in the capture and destruction of Washington, D.C., defeating the small American force stationed to defend the city. After his involvement in the War of 1812, Cockburn returned to Europe. In 1815, he took Napoleon to St. Helena, where the Corsican emperor was exiled. Cockburn served as a member of Parliament several times; and was Lord of the Admiralty, and Admiral of the Fleet in 1851. In 1852, he inherited the title of baron from his brother. Cockburn died on August 19, 1853.

Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Cockburn, George (1772-1853)

COCKBURN, Sir GEORGE (1772–1853), admiral of the fleet, second son of Sir James Cockburn, bart., was at the age of nine entered as captain's servant on the books of the Resource frigate and afterwards of the William and Mary yacht he did not really go to sea till 1786, and after serving in the East Indies, Channel, and Mediterranean, was confirmed in the rank of lieutenant on 2 Jan. 1793. In June he was appointed as one of the lieutenants of ​ the Victory, Lord Hood's flagship off Toulon in October he was promoted to the command of the Speedy sloop and on 20 Feh. 1794 was posted to the Meleager frigate, which served as a repeating ship in Hotham's two actions off Toulon, 14 March and 13 July 1795. For the following twelve months the Meleager was employed in the Gulf of Genoa, under the immediate orders of Captain Nelson, whose friendship Cockburn won by his zeal during an irksome period of service. In August 1796 Cockburn was moved into the Minerve, a large frigate lately captured from the French, and on board which Nelson hoisted his broad pennant when, in December 1796, he was sent back from Gibraltar to relieve the garrison of Elba, and to obtain the latest news of the movements of the French and Spanish fleets. On the way up, off Cartagena, on 20 Dec. she captured the Spanish frigate Sabina, commanded by Don Jacobo Stuart, a descendant of the Duke of Berwick [see Nelson, Horatio, Viscount ], and on her return, passing the Straits of Gibraltar, ran through the Spanish fleet and joined the fleet under Sir John Jervis the day before the battle of Cape St. Vincent ( Drinkwater-Bethune , Narrative of the Battle of Cape St. Vincent), in which the Minerve was present, though without any active participation. With but a short interval the Minerve, under Cockburn's command, continued in the Mediterranean till the peace, and captured, or assisted in capturing, several of the enemy's privateers and smaller ships of war, and more especially the Succès and Bravoure frigates, which were driven ashore on the coast of Italy, 2 Sept. 1801 ( James , Naval History, 1860, iii. 79). She returned to England and was paid off in February 1802.

In July 1803 Cockburn was appointed to the Phaeton, which he commanded for the next two years in the East Indies. In July 1806 he was appointed to the Captain, and in March 1808 to the Pompee, in which in September he went out to the West Indies, where in the following February he had an important share in the reduction of Martinique, flying a broad pennant with a captain under him, by the appointment of the commander-in-chief, Sir Alexander Cochrane [see Brenton, Edward Pelham ]. He afterwards shifted his pennant to the Belle-Isle, and returned to Europe in charge of the prizes, carrying the captured garrison of Martinique, which he took in the first instance to Quiberon Bay, intending there to exchange them. The French authorities, however, would not give up an equal number, and after a vexatious correspondence Cockburn quitted the place in disgust and carried the prisoners to Portsmouth. He afterwards commanded the flotilla of gunboats and bomb-vessels which in July and August cooperated with the army in the reduction of Flushing, and in September covered its retreat as it withdrew from the Scheldt. In February 1810 Cockburn was appointed to the Indefatigable and ordered to Quiberon Bay, where on 7 March he landed two agents who had undertaken to effect the escape of the king of Spain, then imprisoned in the castle of Valencay. Cockburn's share in the business was merely to land the agents and wait for their return with the king but as these men were speedily arrested, Cockburn went back to England. The Indefatigable, with Sir Richard Keats's flag on board, next went to Cadiz, then besieged by the French, against whom Cockburn, in command of the boats of the fleet, rendered important assistance. He was afterwards sent to the Havana, in charge of two Spanish three-deckers, and on his return was, in November 1811, appointed to act as a commissioner in the attempted mediation between Spain and her South American colonies. The Cortes proved impracticable, and the commission returned to England in August 1812. A few days later (12 Aug.) he was advanced to be rear-admiral, and, hoisting his flag on board the Marlborough, was sent to command the squadron before Cadiz. In November, however, in consequence of the war with the United States, he was ordered to proceed to Bermuda, where he was joined by Sir J. B. Warren, the commander-in-chief, and by him was sent with a small squadron to attack the enemy in the Chesapeake. Here the war resolved itself into numerous desultory skirmishes between boats or small landing parties and the American militia. The expedition forced its way up the northern branch of the Chesapeake to the Head of Elk, burning or destroying government stores wherever they were found, and being in almost daily conflict with the enemy, more especially at Havre de Grace, Georgetown, and Frederickstown.

In the following year (1813), after the battle of Bladensburg, 24 Aug., in which Cockburn himself took part, in concert with, his friend Major-general Ross, the joint naval and military force entered the city of Washington, virtually without resistance, and retired unmolested, after having destroyed government stores of a value differently estimated at from half a million to three millions sterling. Cockburn was the guiding spirit throughout the campaign, and was actually engaged on most occasions. The

​ capture of Washington seems to have been entirely suggested and planned by him. and though, from the preponderance of the land forces engaged, the larger share of the credit publicly awarded fell to Ross 'of Bladensburg,' Ross himself, in reporting the success, properly wrote: 'To Rear-admiral Cockburn, who suggested the attack upon Washington, and who accompanied the army, I confess the greatest obligations for his cordial cooperation and advice.' Still co-operating with General Ross, Cockburn, at his special request, accompanied him on his advance against Baltimore, and was with him in the paltry skirmish in which Ross received his death-wound, 12 Sept. During the rest of the year he continued the operations in the Chesapeake in the same desultory but dashing manner, while Sir Alexander Cochrane, with the greater part of the force at his disposal, attempted to carry New Orleans. He was just arranging an expedition against Savannah when, on 25 Feb. 1815, he received intelligence that peace had been concluded. On 2 Jan. he had been nominated a K.C.B., and, being now recalled to England, anchored at Spithead on 4 May, in time to find that war with France had again broken out. He was therefore ordered to hold himself ready for immediate service. It came, but of a nature very different from what he could have expected. He was ordered to hoist his flag on board the Northumberland and convey General Bonaparte to St. Helena. He accordingly went round to Plymouth, whence, with the general on board, he sailed on 8 Aug. On 15 Oct. he arrived at St. Helena, and having landed his prisoner, remained in the twofold character of governor of the island and commander-in-chief of the station, the duties of which posts were rendered extremely irksome by the necessity of unceasing vigilance. In the summer of 1816, however, he was relieved by Sir Hudson Lowe and Sir Pulteney Malcolm, and arrived in England on 1 Aug. He was made G.C.B. on 20 Feb. 1818, and became vice-admiral on 12 Aug. 1819, but had no employment till December 1832, when he was appointed commander-in-chief on the North American and West India station. His return from that command in February 1836 was the end of his service afloat. He became admiral on 10 Jan. 1837, and admiral of the fleet on 1 July 1851. In 1820 he was elected F.R.S. In 1818 he was returned to parliament for Portsmouth, in 1820 for Weobley, in 1826 for Plymouth, and in 1841 for Ripon. He was repeatedly a junior lord of the admiralty, and first naval lord, 1841-6. In April 1827 he was nominated a privy councillor. On 26 Feb. 1852, by the death of his brother James without a son, he succeeded to the baronetcy, a dignity which he enjoyed for only a short time. He died on 19 Aug. 1853, also without a son, and was succeeded in the baronetcy by his brother William, dean of York. He married in 1809 his cousin Mary, daughter of Thomas Cockburn, and left issue one daughter, who married in 1856 Commander J. C. Hoseason.

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biog. Dict. Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage.]

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Cockburn, Sir George

COCKBURN, SIR GEORGE, Bart. (1772–1853), British admiral, second son of Sir James Cockburn, Bart., and uncle of Lord Chief Justice Cockburn, was born in London. He entered the navy in his ninth year. After serving on the home station, and in the East Indies and the Mediterranean, he assisted, as captain of the “Minerve” (38) at the blockade of Leghorn in 1796, and fought a gallant action with the Spanish frigate “Sabina” (40) which he took. He was present at the battle of Cape St Vincent. In 1809, in command of the naval force on shore, he contributed greatly to the reduction of Martinique, and signed the capitulation by which that island was handed over to the English for his services on this occasion he received the thanks of the House of Commons. After service in the Scheldt and at the defence of Cadiz he was sent in 1811 on an unsuccessful mission for the reconciliation of Spain and her American colonies. He was made rear-admiral in 1812, and in 1813–14, as second in command to Warren, he took a prominent part in the American War, especially in the capture of Washington. Early in 1815 he received the order of the Bath, and in the autumn of the same year he carried out, in the “Northumberland” (74), the sentence of deportation to St Helena which had been passed upon Bonaparte. In 1818 he received the Grand Cross of his order, and was made a lord of the admiralty and the same year he was returned to parliament for Portsmouth. He was promoted to the rank of vice-admiral in 1819, and to that of admiral in 1837 he became senior naval lord in 1841, and held office in that capacity till 1846. From 1827 he was a privy councillor. In 1851 he was made admiral of the fleet, and in 1852, a year before his death, inherited the family baronetcy from his elder brother, being himself succeeded by his brother William, dean of York, who died in 1858.

See O’Byrne, Naval Biography W. James, Naval History Gentleman’s Magazine for 1853.

Alfresco Living Wa

The City of Cockburn is a local government area in the southern suburbs of the Western Australian capital city of Perth about 8 kilometres (5 mi) south of Fremantle and about 24 kilometres (15 mi) south of Perth’s central business district . The City covers an area of 167.5 square kilometres (64.7 sq mi) and has a population of 89,683 (2011).


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Cockburn is named after Cockburn Sound , which was named in 1827 by Captain James Stirling after Admiral Sir George Cockburn . Sir George was born in London in 1772 and was a renowned British naval officer, eventually becoming Admiral of the Fleet and First Sea Lord . He served under Horatio Nelson during the war with France, but came to public attention and was granted his knighthood for his service in the War of 1812 , in particular for the burning of Washington in 1814. It was he who took Napoleon to exile on the island of Saint Helena after the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. [2]

In 1871, the Fremantle Road District was created under the District Roads Act 1871 to cover the area to the south and east of Fremantle , and the Fremantle Road Board was created to manage it. The original District was bounded on the north by the Swan River from Fremantle to the mouth of the Canning River on the east by a line from Bull Creek to the junction of what is now the intersection of the Albany and South Western Highways in Armadale on the south by a line from Armadale to, and including the Rockingham townsite and to the west by the Indian Ocean.

In the first five years of the Board’s existence most of its members served on the Fremantle Town Council . The function of the Board was simply to provide the roads that linked Fremantle to other parts of the Colony. By 1913 the District was divided into Wards, each electing representatives to the Board. In 1922 the Board constructed new offices at the corner of Forrest and Rockingham Roads.

In July 1923, the District received a large amount of land (gaining the localities of Atwell and Banjup and 75% of the Jandakot locality) from Jandakot Road District when that entity was abolished. On 21 January 1955, it was renamed Cockburn, [3] after a successful referendum underlined the desire for recognition of the District’s independence from Fremantle.

On 1 July 1961, Cockburn Road District became a shire following the enactment of the Local Government Act 1960, and on 24 January 1971, almost exactly 100 years after the formation of the Fremantle Road District, it became a Town [4] in recognition of its increasingly urban nature. On 26 October 1979 the town attained City status. [5] [6]

A public inquiry into corruption in the City of Cockburn was held in 1999. [7] The Council was suspended in April 1999 and dismissed on 30 June 2000, with administrators running the council until an election held on 6 December 2000. [8] [9] In 2007 the City of Cockburn was again embroiled in controversy as alleged evidence of corruption arose at the Corruption and Crime Commission

Cockburn, Sir George, (1772-1853), 8th Baronet Admiral of the Fleet

The summary includes a brief description of the collection(s) (usually including the covering dates of the collection), the name of the archive where they are held, and reference information to help you find the collection.

Surname: Cockburn
Pretitle: Sir
Forenames: George
Gender: Male
Date: 1772-1853
Biography: ODNB link for Cockburn, Sir George (1772-1853) 10th Baronet Admiral of the Fleet
Name authority reference: GB/NNAF/P154657 (Former ISAAR ref: GB/NNAF/P6015 )
Online related resources Bibliography of British and Irish History link for Sir George Cockburn

See NUC MS 79-1770, R Morriss, Guide to British Naval Papers in North America (1994)


Born the second son of Sir James Cockburn, 8th Baronet, and his second wife Augusta Anne Ayscough, Cockburn was educated at the Royal Navigational School and joined the Royal Navy in March 1781 as a Captain's servant in the sixth-rate HMS Resource. [1] He joined the sloop HMS Termagant in 1787, transferred to the sloop HMS Ariel on the East Indies Station in 1788 and then became midshipman in the fifth-rate HMS Hebe in the Channel Squadron in 1791. [2] He joined the fourth-rate HMS Romney in the Mediterranean Fleet later in 1791 and then became acting lieutenant in the fifth-rate HMS Pearl in 1792. [2] Promoted to the substantive rank of lieutenant on 2 January 1793, he became lieutenant on the brig-sloop HMS Orestes later that month before transferring to the first-rate HMS Britannia in the Mediterranean Fleet in February 1793 and then to the first-rate HMS Victory, Flagship of the Mediterranean Fleet, in June 1793. [2] He became commander of the sloop HMS Speedy in October 1793 and acting captain of the fifth-rate HMS Inconstant in January 1794. [3]

Promoted to the substantive rank of captain on 10 February 1794, Cockburn was given command of the fifth-rate HMS Meleager in the Mediterranean Fleet later that month. [3] He took part in the blockade of Livorno in March 1795 and, having been mentioned in despatches in May 1796, he was given command of the frigate HMS Minerve in August 1796. [3] He fought a gallant action with the Spanish frigate Santa Sabina in January 1797 and was present at the battle of Cape St Vincent in February 1797 during the French Revolutionary Wars. [3]

Cockburn was given command of the fifth-rate HMS Phaeton on the East Indies Station in July 1803, of the third-rate HMS Captain in July 1806 and of the third-rate HMS Pompée in March 1808. [4] He commanded the naval support at the reduction of Martinique in February 1809 during the Napoleonic Wars, for which he received the thanks of Parliament. [4]

Cockburn commanded a squadron of warships for the landings in Walcheren in July 1809 during the Walcheren Campaign. [4] He took command of the third-rate HMS Implacable off the coast of Spain in January 1810 and sailed to Quiberon Bay with a small squadron whose mission was to arrange the escape of the King of Spain, whom the French had imprisoned at the Château de Valençay: the mission failed when Ferdinand refused to have anything to do with the British. [5] Cockburn was promoted to commodore, hoisting his broad pennant in the fourth-rate HMS Grampus, in November 1811. [4]

Promoted to rear admiral on 12 August 1812, [6] Cockburn hoisted his flag in the third-rate HMS Marlborough as commander of a squadron of ships off Cadiz but was reassigned in November 1812 to the North American Station, where he played a major role in the War of 1812 as second-in-command to Admiral Sir John Warren until the end of March 1814 and then to Warren's successor, Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane for the rest of the war. [4] He cruised relentlessly up and down the Chesapeake Bay and other parts of the Atlantic coast in 1813 and 1814, seizing American shipping, disrupting commerce, and raiding the ports. [4] The most important of Cockburn's actions was the capture and burning of Washington on 24 August 1814 undertaken as an advisor to Major General Robert Ross. [7] [8] He was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 4 January 1815. [9]

In August 1815 Cockburn was given the job of conveying Napoleon I in the third-rate HMS Northumberland to Saint Helena: Cockburn remained there for some months as governor of the island and Commander-in-Chief of the Cape of Good Hope Station. [10] He was advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath on 20 February 1818, [11] and having been promoted to vice-admiral on 12 August 1819, [12] he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society on 21 December 1820. [13]

The City of Cockburn is a local government area in the southern suburbs of the Western Australian capital city of Perth about 8 kilometres (5 mi) south of Fremantle and about 24 kilometres (15 mi) south of Perth's central business district. The City covers an area of 167.5 square kilometres (64.7 sq mi) and had a population of over 104,000 as at the 2016 Census.

City of Cockburn History

Cockburn is named after Cockburn Sound, which was named in 1827 by Captain James Stirling after Admiral Sir George Cockburn. Sir George was born in London in 1772 and was a renowned British naval officer, eventually becoming Admiral of the Fleet and First Sea Lord. He served under Horatio Nelson during the war with France, but came to public attention and was granted his knighthood for his service in the War of 1812, in particular for the burning of Washington in 1814. It was he who took Napoleon to exile on the island of Saint Helena after the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.

In 1871, the Fremantle Road District was created under the District Roads Act 1871 to cover the area to the south and east of Fremantle, and the Fremantle Road Board was created to manage it. The original District was bounded on the north by the Swan River from Fremantle to the mouth of the Canning River on the east by a line from Bull Creek to the junction of what is now the intersection of the Albany and South Western Highways in Armadale on the south by a line from Armadale to, and including the Rockingham townsite and to the west by the Indian Ocean.

City of Cockburn Suburbs

Atwell, Aubin Grove, Banjup, Beeliar, Bibra Lake, Cockburn Central, Coogee, Coolbellup, Hamilton Hill, Hammond Park, Henderson, Jandakot, Leeming, Munster, North Coogee, North Lake, Rottnest Island, South Lake, Spearwood, Success, Treeby, Wattleup, Yangebup

About the Croatian Language

Croatian is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries. Croatian is one of the official languages of the European Union, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Standard Croatian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Standard Serbian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin.

Croatian, although technically a form of Serbo-Croatian, is sometimes considered a distinct language by itself. Purely linguistic considerations of languages based on mutual intelligibility (abstand languages) are frequently incompatible with political conceptions of language so that varieties that are mutually intelligible can not be considered separate languages. Differences between various standard forms of Serbo-Croatian are often exaggerated for political reasons. Most Croatian linguists regard Croatian as a separate language that is considered key to national identity. The issue is sensitive in Croatia as the notion of a separate language being the most important characteristic of a nation is widely accepted, stemming from the 19th-century history of Europe. The 1967 Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Literary Language, in which a group of Croatian authors and linguists demanded greater autonomy for the Croatian language, is viewed in Croatia as a linguistic policy milestone that was also a general milestone in national politics. At the 50th anniversary of the Declaration, at the beginning of 2017, a two-day meeting of experts from Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro was organized in Zagreb, at which the text of the Declaration on the Common Language of Croats, Bosniaks, Serbs and Montenegrins was drafted. The new Declaration has received more than ten thousand signatures. It states that in Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro a common polycentric standard language is used, consisting of several standard varieties, such as German, English or Spanish. The aim of the new Declaration is to stimulate discussion on language without the nationalistic baggage and to counter nationalistic divisions.

The terms "Serbo-Croatian" or "Serbo-Croat" are still used as a cover term for all these forms by foreign scholars, even though the speakers themselves largely do not use it. Within ex-Yugoslavia, the term has largely been replaced by the ethnic terms Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian.

In the cases of Prince George (1702-8) and the Duke of Clarence (1827-8) provision was made for the appointment of a Council to assist and advise the Lord High Admiral in the conduct of the business of the office. In 1702 Prince George was authorised to appoint a Council consisting of not more than five Members who were to hold office during his pleasure in 1704 the limit was raised to seven. (fn. 1) At first there were three naval officers amongst the Members after 1704 there were usually five. In May 1827 the Duke of Clarence was authorised to appoint a Council of not more than four Members to hold office during his pleasure in July of the same year the right of appointment was transferred from the Lord High Admiral to the crown. (fn. 2) This Council was composed of two naval and two civil Members. The salaries of the Members of both Councils were fixed at £1000. (fn. 3)

In the following list the letter (N) after the name of a Member indicates that he was a naval officer.

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Responsible Government

COCKBURN, Sir FRANCIS, soldier: b. 10 Nov. 1780 in England, the fifth son of Sir James Cockburn, 6th Baronet of Langton, and his second wife, Augusta Anne Ayscough m. in 1804 Alicia Sandys d. 24 Aug. 1868 at East Cliff, Dover, England.

Francis Cockburn entered the 7th Dragoon Guards as a cornet at age 19 and through purchase of commissions and promotion rose to the rank of captain in 1804. He served in South America in 1807 and in the Iberian Peninsula in 1809 and 1810. On 27 June 1811 he arrived in Canada as a captain in the Canadian Fencibles and in September of that year was promoted major. During the War of 1812 Cockburn displayed himself as a competent and diligent officer. He led successful raids against enemy forces in 1813 at Red Mills, N.Y., south of Prescott, Upper Canada, and in 1814 at the Salmon River in Franklin County, N.Y. In November and December 1814 Cockburn commanded a company of Canadian Fencibles which, with a detachment of sappers and miners, traversed what would become the “Penetang Road” between Lake Simcoe and Penetanguishene on Georgian Bay. Cockburn’s report to Sir Thomas Sydney Beckwith, quartermaster-general for Upper and Lower Canada, favoured the British scheme of establishing a naval base at Penetanguishene.

After 22 July 1814 Cockburn served at York (Toronto) and at Kingston in the Quartermaster-General’s Department for Upper Canada. On 26 June 1815 his abilities were recognized by his elevation to the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the New Brunswick Fencibles and his appointment as assistant quartermaster-general for Upper Canada. In addition to his regular duties he was responsible for settling and provisioning the first groups of immigrants and disbanded soldiers to arrive in Upper Canada under Colonial Secretary Lord Bathurst’s plan for assisted emigration. Some 1,500 people were established near Perth in the Bathurst District in mid 1816, and in September Cockburn made an important early report on settlement in this area.

Cockburn was transferred from Kingston to Quebec to become deputy quartermaster-general for Upper and Lower Canada on 10 Jan. 1818. As senior officer in the department he was responsible for the military settlements in Upper Canada at Perth (established in 1816), Richmond (1818), Lanark (1820), and the Bay of Quinte area and Glengarry County (1815), and in Lower Canada on the Rivière Saint-François (1816). With characteristic industry Cockburn enlarged his Quebec office (which, he complained in 1819, was “literally filled with settlers from Morning to Night”), dealt with settlers’ petitions, and conducted numerous tours of the settlements. His reports provide valuable evidence of the early growth of these settlements. They also reveal in Cockburn, who himself held land in the Bay of Quinte area, a great personal interest in the development of the Rideau Lakes district: it was he who urged the plan of settlement adopted with the establishment of Richmond in 1818, and his belief in the potential prosperity of the district was demonstrated in his founding of Franktown in Beckwith Township, a village with his own name which he hoped would become a major trading centre. Cockburn’s work in these settlements officially ended with the cessation of military control on Christmas eve 1822, but he continued to superintend them until June 1823.

While serving at Quebec, Cockburn gained a special knowledge of Canada. In 1821 he accompanied Lord Dalhousie [Ramsay*] on a tour of inspection of over 1,600 miles, which extended to the military posts on the western frontier of Upper Canada. Cockburn Island, a hamlet, and a township in the Manitoulin district bear his name in recognition of his part in this tour. The following year Cockburn surveyed the Gaspé Peninsula to determine its potential for settlement. His most notable journey, however, was as attendant to the Duke of Richmond [Lennox*] on his fateful tour of Perth and Richmond in August 1819 Cockburn’s diary remains the main source for the events leading to the commander-in-chief’s tragic death of hydrophobia.

Cockburn began an extended leave of absence from the Quartermaster-General’s Office at Quebec in July 1823, when he returned to England. In 1825 he was one of the five commissioners, including John Davidson, asked to fix the price of lands to be purchased in Upper Canada by the Canada Company. The following year Cockburn was an important witness before a British parliamentary committee which asked him to prepare a report on past programmes of assisted emigration. Cockburn recommended strong government support of emigration, including an 18-month supply of provisions for settlers. He suggested settlement in the Gaspé and Ottawa regions and between lakes Simcoe and Huron, as well as along a line of communication between New Brunswick and Lower Canada. Cockburn opposed assisted settlement in the Eastern Townships because he felt the French Canadians and their seigneurial system offered a better barrier against the United States.

In 1827 the undersecretary of state for the colonies dispatched Cockburn on a tour of British North America to determine which remaining lands were suitable for settlement and to make tentative arrangements for possible future immigration. In his 1828 report Cockburn saw little room for further settlement but he recommended that six townships be laid out in New Brunswick in the tract between the Petitcodiac and Miramichi rivers. Again he stressed the importance of a strong communications link between New Brunswick and the Canadas.

Cockburn’s tour in 1827 was his last involvement in the affairs of British North America. He had assiduously pursued his career in Canada, although his determination when frustrated could produce in him a saturnine disposition. Nevertheless, his commanding officers always expressed confidence in his abilities and frequently praised his performance of his duties.

On 30 July 1829 Cockburn joined the 2nd West India Foot, and in September of that year was ordered to British Honduras, where from 1830 to 1837 he was superintendent of the colony. From 1837 to 1844 he served as governor and commander-in-chief of the Bahamas he had been knighted in 1841. In 1846 he was elevated to the rank of major-general, and on 26 Dec. 1853 was appointed colonel of the 95th Foot. He became lieutenant-general in 1854 and general in 1860, and died in 1868.

Watch the video: Sir George Cockburn, 10th Baronet (January 2022).