Country Index: Canada
WARS & TREATIESBATTLESBIOGRAPHIESWEAPONSCONCEPTS
Wars and Treaties
Amiens, battle of, 8 August-3 September 1918
Ancre, battle of the, 13-19 November 1916
Ancre Heights, battle of the of 1 October-11 November 1916
Antwerp and Scheldt Estuary, battle for, 4 September-8 November 1944
Arno Line, battle of, 23 July-31 August 1944
Arras, second battle of, 9 April-17 May 1917
Atlantic, Operation, 18-21 July 1944
Bapaume, second battle of, 21 August-1 September 1918
Baytown, Operation,, 3 September 1943 (Calabria)
Biferno, battle of the, 1-7 October 1943
Bresken Pocket, battle of, or Operation Switchback, 6 October-3 November, 1944
Caen,battle of, 6 June- 6 August 1944
Cambrai-St. Quentin, battle of, 27 September-9 October 1918
Cassino, fourth battle of, 11- 18 May 1944 (Operation Diadem)
Channel Ports - Le Havre, Boulogne, Calais, 5-30 September 1944
Charnwood, Operation, 8-9 July 1944
Chateauguay River, battle of, 26 October 1813
Chippawa, battle of, 5 July 1814
Crysler’s Farm, battle of, 11 November 1813
Detroit, battle of, 16 August 1812
D-Day, 6 June 1944: Main Article
Dieppe, raid on, 19 August 1942, (part one)
Dieppe Raid, 19 August 1942 (part two)
Falaise Gap, battle of the, 8-20 August 1944
Festubert, battle of, 15-27 May 1915
Flers-Courcelette, battle of, 15-22 September 1916
Fort Frontenac, fall of, 26 August 1758
Fort George, battle of, 25-27 May 1813
Fort Meigs, siege of, 1-9 May 1813
Frenchman’s Creek/ Red House, skirmishes at, 28 November 1812
Frenchtown, battle of,22 January 1813
Gemmano, battle of, 4-15 September 1944
Goodwood, Operation, 18-20 July 1944
Gothic Line, first attack on (Operation Olive,25 August-October 1944)
Gustav Line or Winter Line, battle of, 12 January-18 May 1944
Infatuate, Operation/ Battle of Walcheran, 1-8 November 1944
Juno Beach, 6 June 1944
Louisbourg, siege and fall of, 2 June-27 July 1758 (Canada)
Mackinac Island, battle of, 17 July 1812
Market Garden, Operation September 17 - 27 1944
Moro River, battle of, 4 December 1943-4 January 1944
Normandy, battle of / Operation Overlord (6 June to 25 August 1944)
Olive, Operation (25 August-October 1944) - First attack on the Gothic Line
Ortona, battle of, 20-27 December 1943
Paardeberg, battle of, 18-27 February 1900
Passchendaele, Second battle of, 26 October-10 November 1917
Plains of Abraham, battle of, 13 September 1759 (Canada)
Quebec, siege of, 25 June-18 September 1759
Queenston Heights, battle of, 13 October 1812
Rimini, battle of, 13-21 Sept 44
Romagna or the Rivers, battle of, 22 September-21 December 1944
Rutter, Operation, The Planned Attack on Dieppe, 7 July 1942
Sangro, battle of the, 20 November- 4 December 1943
Selle, battle of the, 17-25 October 1918
Shingle, Operation - Battle of Anzio, 22 January-5 June 1944
South Beveland, battle of/ Operation Vitality, 16 October-1 November 1944
Spring, Operation, 25-27 July 1944
Stoney Creek, battle of, 6 June 1813
Switchback, Operation, or the battle of the Breskens Pocket, 6 October-3 November, 1944
Thiepval Ridge, battle of, 26-30 September 1916
Ticonderoga, defence of, 6-7 July 1758 (America)
Totalize, Operation, 8-11 August 1944
Tractable, Operation, 14 August-21 August 1944
Transloy Ridges, battle of the, 1-20 October 1916
Trasimeno or Albert Line, battle of the, 20 June-2 July 1944
Trigno, battle of the, 27 October-4 November 1943
Vimy Ridge, battle of, 9-13 April 1917
Vitality, Operation/ Battle of South Beveland, 16 October-1 November 1944
Walcheran, battle of/ Operation Infatuate , 1-8 November 1944
Windsor, Operation, 4-5 July 1944
Winter Line or Gustav Line, battle of, 12 January-18 May 1944
York, battle of, 27 April 1813
Ypres, Second Battle of, 22 April-25 May 1915
Ypres, Third Battle of, 21 July- 6 November 1917
Abercromby, James, general
Amherst, Jeffrey, 1717-1797, first baron Amherst (1776), Field Marshal (1796)
Byng, General Sir Julian, Viscount Byng of Vimy, 1862-1935
Montcalm, Louis-Joseph, French general in French and Indian War (1712-1759)
Sheaffe, Sir Roger Hale, 1763-1851
Weapons, Armies & Units
20mm quad AA Tank, Skink (Canada)
Annapolis, HMCS/ USS Mackenzie (DD-175)
Avro Lancaster Mk X
Boeing-Stearman PT-27 (Model D-75N1)
Bristol (Fairchild) Bolingbroke
Columbia, HMCS, USS Haraden (DD-183)
Cruiser Tank, Grizzly Mk I (Canada)
Cruiser Tank, Ram Mk I (Canada)
Cruiser Tank, Ram Mk II (Canada)
Curtiss JN-4Can 'Canuck'
De Havilland Mosquito B Mk VII
De Havilland Mosquito Mk XX-29 (Canada)
Grizzly Mk I, Cruiser Tank (Canada)
Hawker Hurricane X, XI and XII
Niagara, HMCS/ USS Thatcher, USS (DD-162)
Ram Mk I, Cruiser Tank (Canada)
Ram Mk II, Cruiser Tank (Canada)
St. Clair, HMCS/ USS Williams (DD-108)
St. Croix, HMCS/ USS McCook (DD-252 )
St. Francis, HMCS/ USS Bancroft, USS (DD-256 )
Sexton Tracked Self-Propelled 25 pounder (Canada)
Skink, 20mm quad AA Tank (Canada)
Tracked Self-Propelled 25 pounder, Sexton (Canada)
Valentine VI, Infantry Tank Mk III***
Valentine VII, Infantry Tank Mk III***
A Guide to the United States’ History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, since 1776: Canada
The Dominion of Canada formed in 1867, but as an integral part of the British Empire its foreign relations remained under the control of London. Over the next six decades Canada gradually won greater control over its external affairs, spurred in part by the demands of managing its relationship with the United States. American and Canadian government officials increasingly interacted through joint commissions and military cooperation, and the two governments even negotiated a bilateral fisheries treaty in 1923. It was not until 1926, however, that the United Kingdom acknowledged that Canada was fully autonomous in the conduct of its foreign affairs.
MSCI ACWI Index
The MSCI ACWI Index, MSCI’s flagship global equity index, is designed to represent performance of the full opportunity set of large- and mid-cap stocks across 23 developed and 27 emerging markets. As of November 2020, it covers more than 3,000 constituents across 11 sectors and approximately 85% of the free float-adjusted market capitalization in each market. The index is built using MSCI’s Global Investable Market Index (GIMI) methodology, which is designed to take into account variations reflecting conditions across regions, marketcap sizes, sectors, style segments and combinations.
MSCI ACWI Index market allocation
Historical research has shown that investment outcome success is predominately determined by the allocation decision process. 1
- Investors are increasingly looking beyond their home market toward the full global equity opportunity set as the starting point for their investments
- Allocation decisions that start with the full opportunity set can be adjusted based on investor goals, expertise, philosophy and constraints
- Not considering the full opportunity set can introduce unintended bets and biases/risks, and can be an investment decision in itself
1 G. Brinson, L. Randolf Hood and G. Beebower. (1986). ”Determinants of Portfolio Performance.” Financial Analysts Journal, July/August.
Country Index: Canada - History
The Global Slavery Index estimates that on any given day in 2016 there were 17,000 people living in conditions of modern slavery in Canada, a prevalence of 0.5 victims for every thousand people in the country.
The Canadian government publishes statistics on human trafficking convictions and identified cases. The Human Trafficking National Coordination Centre (HTNCC) reported that as of November 2017, they had identified 455 cases of human trafficking since 2005. Of these 455 cases, 433 cases were domestic trafficking cases where Canadian or foreign citizens were exploited within Canada, primarily for the purpose of sexual exploitation. The remaining 22 cases were international trafficking cases where victims were trafficked across international borders, predominantly for the purpose of forced labour. So far, 118 cases have resulted in human trafficking specific and/or related convictions, but 296 cases remain before the court (involving about 506 accused perpetrators and 420 victims). 1 These figures, of course, do not consider the unknown number of victims that are not reported.
In Canada, forced labour exploitation affects migrant workers, particularly those migrating to Canada under the ‘low-skilled’ temporary visa streams of the Temporary Foreign Workers Program (TFWP), including the low-wage and primary agricultural streams, 2 the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP), and the Live-In Caregiver program (LCP). 3 Although the Canadian government ceased accepting any new applications for the LCP from 30 November 2014, there are still many migrants working as caregivers who entered Canada under the former LCP stream. In addition, since the abolition of the LCP, migrants looking to work as caregivers in Canada can still do so by applying for a regular work permit. 4
Workers employed under these streams may work in restaurants, hotels or other hospitality services, agriculture, food preparation, construction, manufacturing, or domestic work. 5 Migrant workers, particularly those in low-skilled and caregiving positions, reportedly experience a wide range of abuse including verbal, physical, and sexual abuse. Specific examples include working without pay, performing tasks outside the scope of the employment contract, not receiving vacation or overtime pay, working extremely long hours, deduction of “fees” for food or accommodation from pay cheques, and particularly for women, sexual violence. In 2017, foreign workers who claim they paid thousands of dollars to obtain non-existent jobs at Mac’s convenience stores had their claims certified as a class action lawsuit in the Supreme Court of British Columbia. 6 The four workers named in the suit allege they paid up to US$8,500 each in illegal fees to Surrey-based immigration consultant firms to obtain jobs as temporary foreign workers in Western Canada, but upon arrival in Canada discovered there was no job awaiting them. 7
The SAWP was designed in the 1960s to fill Canada’s labour shortage for seasonal agricultural labour and allows Canadian farm businesses to hire workers from Mexico and several Caribbean countries on temporary visas during harvesting season. 8 In 2015, over 40,000 migrant workers were employed in Canada through the SAWP. 9 In 2016, the death of a SAWP migrant farm worker from Jamaica caused public outcry, revealing that many SAWP migrant workers are working under exploitative conditions and are often not appropriately treated following injury. 10 A 2014 study reports that during 2001 and 2011, 787 repatriations occurred among 170,315 migrant farm workers arriving in Ontario. The most common reason for being sent back to their countries of origin were medical or surgical reasons (41.3 percent) or external injuries, defined as trauma and including poisoning (25.5 percent). The study also found the workers were a "unique and vulnerable occupational group." 11
Migrant workers who previously entered Canada under the Live-in Caregiver Program (LCP) are vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. This is particularly due to one of the previous requirements that foreign caregivers had to live in the home of their employers. The results of a survey of 33 Filipino live-in care workers between 2012 and 2014 found evidence of withholding immigration documents and threat of deportation (reported by six workers), physical violence (five workers), accusations (18), insults (15), psychological, moral and sexual harassment (13), and different types of threats (15), such as threat of being reported to the immigration authorities. Two-thirds of the interviewed workers also reported that they were recruited through an employment agency which charged high fees for organising their employment and documentation. As these fees did not include the worker’s travel and setup fees, many of the workers reported having to borrow large sums from banks or family members in the Philippines to be able to migrate to Canada. 12 Due to persistent allegations of exploitation of live-in caregivers, the program was overhauled in 2014, resulting in the removal of the live-in requirement, in addition to the announcement that the government would no longer accept applications that were received on or after 30 November 2014. 13 However, allegations of exploitation continue among those already employed through the LCP. 14
Forced sexual exploitation of adults and children
Trafficking within Canada for the purpose of sexual exploitation, primarily involving Canadian citizens as victims, is reported to be the most common form of modern slavery detected by authorities. 15 In fact, 93 percent of identified sex trafficking victims are Canadian citizens, not foreign citizens. 16 It must be emphasised that these figures do not necessarily reflect the small numbers of foreign nationals being subject to exploitation in Canada, but rather, they are a reflection of the numerous reasons foreign victims do not report to authorities, such as being tied to their employer through their visa while trying to get permanent residence, or fear of deportation. 17 This is in addition to the many reasons victims in general do not come forward, such as threats or a dependent relationship with their exploiters, among others. Therefore, true estimates are difficult to attain. The majority of forced sexual exploitation cases in Canada are reported in the densely populated Greater Toronto Area. 18 In 2015, Peel Regional Police, which services the greater Toronto area, brought 244 charges related to sex trafficking and in the first half of 2016 alone they brought 149 charges. 19 In 2016, a Calgary woman was sentenced to eight years of prison for trafficking two young women and forcing them into sex work. 20 In April 2018, a 16-year-old boy was charged with sex trafficking of a girl in Edmonton. He allegedly lured the girl with gifts, held her against her will, and forced her into the sex trade. 21
According to a report by the South Asian Legal Clinic of Ontario (SALCO) released in 2013, 30 agencies surveyed in Ontario and Quebec reported 219 forced marriage cases between 2010 and 2012. Of those affected by forced marriage, 92 per cent were female, six per cent male, just over one percent were transgender, and less than one percent were unknown. 22 The report notes this number may however be skewed due to a lack of outreach to male clients. Of those affected, 35 percent were under the age of 18, 31 percent were aged 19 to 24, and 25 percent were aged 25 to 34, with the remaining nine percent aged 35 years and older. These findings indicate that the majority of identified forced marriage victims are of a very young age. 23 The report also revealed that most victims were born overseas, coming from over 30 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and South America, while 22 victims were Canadian citizens. Forty-one percent of forced marriage clients were taken out of the country (either taken out of the country they lived in and brought to Canada or taken out of Canada) to be married. 24 Fifty percent of individuals who came to see service providers were reportedly not aware of their rights with respect to forced marriage. 25
Imported products at risk of modern slavery
While modern slavery clearly occurs within Canada, the realities of global trade and business make it inevitable that Canada, like many other countries globally, will also be exposed to the risk of modern slavery through the products it imports. Policy-makers, businesses, and consumers must become aware of this risk and take responsibility for it. Table 1 below highlights the top five products (according to US$ value, per annum) imported by Canada which are at risk of being produced under conditions of modern slavery. 26
Table 1 Imports of products at risk of modern slavery to Canada
|Product at risk of modern slavery||Import value |
(in thousands of $US)
|Laptops, computers, and mobile phones||7,620,394||China, Malaysia|
|Apparel and clothing accessories||4,743,472||Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam|
|Fish||391,734.07||China, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand|
|Sugarcane||243,309||Brazil, Dominican Republic|
Canada imports more than US$7.6 billion of laptops, computers, and mobile phones from China and Malaysia – the industries of both of these countries are considered at risk of using modern slavery in the production of these goods. The second highest value import which is suspected to be produced under conditions of modern slavery is apparel (US$4.7 billion). Canada imports nearly US$ 1.6 billion worth of gold annually from Peru. Research conducted in 2012 and 2013 found that workers in the illegal gold mining industry in Peru find themselves trapped in debt-bondage like situations where they have to pay off excessive debts to recruiters and are threatened when they attempt to leave the mines. 27 Fish is another product of significant import value that may be at risk of modern slavery. Canada imports over US$390 million worth of fish from countries suspected of having modern slavery in their fishing industries. Sugarcane is one of the largest agricultural commodities in the world. 28 Canada receives 63 percent of its overall sugarcane imports from Brazil (US$ 243.3 million) whose sugarcane industry is considered at risk of using modern slavery. 29 Brazil was also the top producer of sugar from sugarcane in 2015 and dominates world trade, accounting for 40 percent of global exports of sugar. 30
According to data on identified cases, modern slavery takes place largely for the purpose of forced sexual exploitation in Canada women represent the majority of identified victims. 31 The majority of sex trafficking victims are reportedly Canadian-born teenage girls, some as young as 13, who are recruited in various ways, including at school, through social media, and at shopping malls. Techniques used by traffickers include building dependence by buying gifts and posing as boyfriends. 32 Younger male members of street gangs simulate affection as a tool to recruit young women. 33 The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) also identify young people and individuals already working in sex industries to be most vulnerable to modern slavery. 34
Marginalised and disadvantaged communities are reportedly more vulnerable to forced sexual exploitation, including women from Indigenous communities, young women and girls, migrants, and children in protection services. 35 According to a 2014 survey of 266 Canadian front-line response organisations conducted by the Canadian Women’s Foundation, 51 percent of trafficked girls had been in the child welfare system and 51 percent of trafficked women and girls were Indigenous. Children in care are at increased risk of being targeted by traffickers due to prior neglect and limited oversight in the child welfare system, which may also result in children running away from care. 36 Indigenous women and girls are particularly vulnerable due to a range of factors, including family violence, childhood abuse, poverty, homelessness, lack of education, and substance addictions, combined with the remote living conditions of many Indigenous communities. 37 The impact of colonisation and intergenerational trauma, such as racial discrimination, oppression, and sexual violence, also plays a role in the vulnerability of Indigenous women and girls. 38
In the TFWP, migrants with valid work permits under the ‘low-skilled’ streams are most vulnerable to conditions amounting to forced labour, including those under the low-wage and the primary agricultural streams. 39 A lack of monitoring and enforcement under the TFWP has also made it easier for illegal practices to take place, such as charging migrants excessive recruitment fees that result in substantial debt and indentured labour. 40 These workers are vulnerable to exploitation and trafficking as a result of several conditions of the TFWP, including barriers to attaining permanent status, and employer-specific work permits that tie immigration status to a single employer, causing migrant workers to risk deportation if they leave their job. 41 Migrant workers may be threatened with deportation, forced to live in sub-standard conditions, or forced to work in dangerous conditions without receiving any workplace health and safety information or training. 42
Migrant farm workers entering Canada through the SAWP are particularly vulnerable to exploitation as they are dependent on their employers for accommodation, food, and employment, and often work and live in isolated rural areas. 43 It is also reported that temporary foreign workers often face language barriers that means they may sign work contracts they do not understand and are charged illegal recruitment fees in their home countries, leaving them under pressure of paying off significant debt. 44 Every year thousands of seasonal workers from Jamaica, Mexico, and other Caribbean countries come to work in rural Canadian communities under the SAWP and the TFWP. 45 Their precarious visa status renders migrant workers vulnerable to abuse and mistreatment. 46 Migrant workers who become ill or injured in Canada may have their work permit confiscated due to their inability to work and may consequently be sent home without access to adequate health care. 47 SAWP workers who become injured at work face repatriation and denial of medical treatment. Provincial health insurance is often denied as such insurance relies on a valid work permit. 48 There have also been reported cases of female migrant workers hiding their pregnancy for fear of losing their employment status and being deported. 49
Although care workers on the LCP were granted the right to live outside their employer’s home as part of the changes to the LCP program in 2014, workers under the program may still be vulnerable to exploitation. In addition to losing their place of living, caregivers who would decide to move out of their employer’s home are required to obtain a new Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA) and work permit, 50 therefore making it difficult to change employers in practice. 51 Additionally, the changes also resulted in live-out caregivers no longer being considered part of the LCP which meant they were no longer eligible to apply for permanent residence under the LCP. 52
Response to modern slavery
The Canadian government has criminalised human trafficking under section 279.01 and human trafficking of persons under the age of 18 years under section 279.011 of the criminal code. Additionally, section 279.02 criminalises receiving material benefits for the purpose of committing or facilitating trafficking and section 279.03 makes it a criminal offence to withhold or destroy a person’s identity documents for the purpose of trafficking. 53 Forced labour and modern slavery are not criminalised in Canada’s penal code as distinct offences. However, the Canadian government pledged during the IV Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labour to sign the ILO Forced Labour Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention of 1930 as soon as possible. 54 Forced marriage is a criminal offence since 2015 according to section 293.1 of the criminal code. 55
Victims of modern slavery are assisted through support services funded through the Justice Canada Victims Fund. 56 However, dedicated funding for victim assistance reportedly varies across different provinces and territories. 57 The Department of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) issues short-term Temporary Residents Permits (TRPs) (up to 180 days) to suspected victims of trafficking and longer-term TRPS (valid up to three years) to identified victims of trafficking to enable them to legally stay in Canada and receive health care and a work permit. 58 In 2016, the government issued 67 TRPs, of which 26 were first-time permits and 41 were re-issues to victims who had previously received a permit. 59
The Canadian government has a National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking (NAP), which expired on 31 March 2016 however, all budgets have been maintained and the responsible federal departments are continuing their work. 60 The Minister of Public Safety published a formal evaluation of the NAP in December 2017. The evaluation report emphasises the need for a NAP and recommends improving capacity to collect national data on trafficking and implementing a mechanism to connect victims with dedicated support services and facilitate reporting of human trafficking cases, among others. It also notes that the NAP has made a limited contribution to the investigation and prosecution of trafficking crimes due to a range of external factors, such as jurisdictional constraint and the difficulty of collecting sufficient evidence for the prosecution, which limits the ability of federal law enforcement agencies to conduct such investigations. 61 A new NAP had not yet been published at the time of writing.
The Standing Committee on Human Resources, Skills and Social Development (HUMA) recommended in its 2016 review of the TFWP that the government abolish the ‘employer-specific work permit’ that ties workers to a specific employer and introduce pathways to permanent residency for all temporary foreign workers. 62 Though the government announced some reforms to the TFWP as part of the 2017 federal budget, it rejected the recommendation of ending work permits that are tied to employers, thus rendering temporary migrant workers at risk of exploitation. 63 There are also still significant barriers for temporary foreign workers to obtain permanent residence at this stage. 64
In 2016, Ontario introduced its first Director of the newly established Provincial Anti-Human Trafficking Coordination Office who will be responsible for coordinating the implementation of Ontario’s Strategy to End Human Trafficking, working across ministries and in collaboration with the law enforcement, justice, social services, health, education, and child welfare sectors. 65
Response to modern slavery in supply chains
Although the Canadian government has not yet introduced legislation to ensure government agencies take steps to eliminate modern slavery from their supply chains, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau noted in 2016 that “Canada will undertake efforts to review its federal procurement guidelines and policies to determine if there are potential vulnerabilities to abuse by human traffickers.” 66 In September 2017, Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSCP) presented to the Committee of Experts of the Mechanism for Follow-up on the Implementation of the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption (MESICIC) in relation to updates of the current Code of Conduct for Procurement. The Code, used by Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSPC), the government of Canada’s central purchasing agency, is being updated to align with the government’s social and sustainable procurement policy objectives. The new code could be used as a tool to help Canada meets its international commitments, such as ILO conventions and the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, and address concerns regarding child and forced labour, human trafficking, and unsafe employment practices. 67 PSPC has reportedly begun the drafting process for a new Code based on recommendations and other feedback, 68 however it is currently unclear how this is progressing.
In November 2017, PSPC also began seeking input from apparel suppliers to develop guidelines for the ethical procurement of apparel. 69 As part of the request, suppliers selling apparel to the federal government will have to self-certify that their direct Canadian and foreign suppliers comply with local laws and international labour rights and human rights standards, such as forced labour and access to fair wages and safe working conditions. PSPC also announced it will meet with suppliers, industry associations and other stakeholders in the apparel industry to discuss current practices on ethical manufacturing and sourcing throughout their supply chains. 70 The government of Canada, through PSPC, reportedly has active contracts for the procurement of apparel totalling more than Can$640 million (US$509 million 71 ). 72
Impact of the UK Modern Slavery Act in Canada
In 2016, Walk Free and WikiRate 73 partnered to develop a UK Modern Slavery Act Research project that would contribute to transparency on corporate action on modern slavery by enabling members of the public to view and assess modern slavery statements produced under Section 54 of the UK Modern Slavery Act. 74 Section 54 requires businesses either headquartered or conducting business in the UK and with an annual turnover of over GBP36 million per annum to release an annual statement on the actions they are taking to respond to modern slavery. 75 There are an estimated 12,000 to 17,000 statements that will be produced under this reporting requirement, many of which are housed on the Business and Human Rights Resource Centre (BHRRC) Modern Slavery Registry. 76
The UK Modern Slavery Act Research project employs a crowdsourcing approach to reviewing and assessing the statements housed on the BHRRC platform, recognising the value of having a fully transparent platform, but also the enormous amount of time and resources it would take to conduct this analysis. The Wikirate platform enables university students and the general public to access the statements and answer a series of questions assessing whether the statements meet the requirements of the Act (signed by a board member, approved by the board and hosted on the company homepage) and if they detail policies that enable the business to better respond to modern slavery. To date, over 400 statements have been assessed by university students at Columbia University, ESCP Europe Business School, Johns Hopkins University, University of Nottingham, and the University of Western Australia.
Twenty statements have been released to date by Canadian companies. The largest sectors represented are the banking sector (5) and software and services (4), followed by consumer durables and apparel (2). 77
The statements analysed by the Modern Slavery Act Project were the most recently available statements at the time the research was conducted – in most cases, this would be the 2016 statement. All statements analysed by the project can be found on the relevant business page at https://wikirate.org/UK_Modern_Slavery_Act_Research. Some businesses have subsequently updated and improved their statements, and the updated statement will be included in the next iteration of the research.
These statements vary in quality, with some companies including comprehensive information on their response to modern slavery in supply chains all the way through to statements that are not available on the home page or have not been signed by a CEO or Director. Of those analysed by the Modern Slavery Act Research project on the Wikirate platform, statements by Bank of Montreal 78 and Estee Lauder Cosmetics 79 are among those that include details on policies and due diligence processes that apply to their own business and are signed by a director/chairman and approved by the board. The Bank of Montreal statement also provides details on the Bank’s supply chains and whistleblowing mechanisms, among other details. Other statements are less detailed, as they provide information on relevant policies and limited additional information on the steps taken to combat modern slavery directly. This includes Westridge Construction 80 among others. A statement by IBI group 81 is not signed and includes details on a code of conduct.
Business supply chains
While Canada does not currently have federal legislation that requires large businesses to publicly report on steps taken to eliminate modern slavery within their business and supply chains, there is a growing impetus for such legislation in Canada. 82 Canada also has an ongoing parliamentary inquiry on child labour and modern slavery that has discussed the question of supply chain transparency, among other issues. 83
In a major step forward, the Canadian government announced on 17 January 2018 that it will create an independent Canadian Ombudsman for Responsible Enterprise (CORE). The CORE will be mandated to investigate allegations of human rights abuses linked to Canadian corporate activity abroad and will have the power to independently investigate, report, recommend, and remediate, as well as to monitor implementation of the remedies it imposes. The position’s scope will be multi-sectoral, initially focusing on the mining, oil and gas, and garment sectors, but it is expected that it will be extended to other business sectors. The Canadian government also announced plans to establish an Advisory Board on Responsible Business Conduct to advise the government and the CORE on responsible business conduct abroad. 84
At the time of writing, the ground-breaking case of Araya v Nevsun Resources is before the Canadian courts. 85 In 2008, Nevsun, a Canadian resources company, contracted the Eritrean government to build the Bisha mine and infrastructure, which involved the recruitment of local Eritrean workers. In 2014, three Eritrean workers filed a lawsuit against the mining company in the Supreme Court of Canada. The plaintiffs allege that they were conscripted by the Eritrean government under their ‘National Service Program’ and forced to build the mine under conditions of modern slavery. 86 Therefore, the plaintiffs claim that Nevsun Resources was complicit in and profited from crimes of modern slavery by using forced labour to build the Bisha Mine in Eritrea. Six further claims have been filed against Nevsun on behalf of 59 additional plaintiffs on the same basis. It is the first international trial against a corporation on grounds of modern slavery within its supply chains. Although the merits of the claim have not yet been heard, this case highlights an increasing global trend for foreign courts to hold companies accountable for human rights abuses. 87
Canada’s industry and land use vary based on region. The eastern portion of the country is the most industrialized but Vancouver, British Columbia, a major seaport, and Calgary, Alberta, are some western cities that are highly industrialized as well. Alberta also produces 75% of Canada’s oil and is important for coal and natural gas.
Canada’s resources include nickel (mainly from Ontario), zinc, potash, uranium, sulfur, asbestos, aluminum, and copper. Hydroelectric power and pulp and paper industries are also important. In addition, agriculture and ranching play a significant role in the Prairie Provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) and several parts of the rest of the country.
Corruption Perceptions Index 2020: Research analysis
Head of state: Queen Elizabeth II, represented by a governor general
Prime minister: Justin Trudeau
Justin Trudeau - son of Pierre Trudeau, who dominated Canadian politics in the 1970s - won a resounding election victory for his Liberal Party in October 2015, ending the nine years of Conservative government under Stephen Harper.
After a closely fought three-way contest with the Conservatives and centre-left New Democrats, the Liberals leapt from the humiliating third place they won at the 2011 election to gain a surprise overall majority in parliament.
Mr Trudeau campaigned on promises to shift some of the tax burden from middle-income earners to the richest Canadians, and run a budget deficit to allow spending on infrastructure and boosting growth.
Traditionally Canada has sought to increase its population through immigration in order to expand the workforce and domestic markets. As a result, immigrants now make up about one-sixth of Canada’s total population. Immigration peaked in 1913, when more than 400,000 arrived. Immigration was discouraged during the Great Depression of the 1930s, but after World War II tens of thousands of displaced persons from Europe were admitted, and in the 1970s and ’80s large numbers of refugees from Europe, Asia, and Latin America were welcomed to Canada. Canada’s immigration policy is nondiscriminatory regarding ethnicity however, individuals with special talents or with capital to invest are given preference. Since the latter part of the 20th century, Asian immigration (notably Chinese) has increased dramatically, accounting for about half of all immigrants during the 1990s.
During the first two decades of the 20th century, the notable feature of internal migration was the movement from eastern Canada to the Prairie Provinces. Although British Columbia has continued to gain from migration since the 1930s, much of this has been at the expense of the Prairie Provinces. Alberta gained population from throughout Canada during the oil boom of the 1970s. This trend leveled off in the 1980s and early ’90s, but it increased again at the beginning of the 21st century. Saskatchewan has had more emigration than immigration since the 1940s. Ontario consistently has received far more people since the 1940s than the other provinces, but most of this growth has been from immigration rather than interprovincial migrations. The population of the Atlantic Provinces has grown more slowly than it has in regions farther west. The cities of Toronto, Vancouver, and Calgary have attracted both migrants and immigrants.
During the 20th century, natural increase, rather than immigration, was the major factor in Canada’s population growth. Until the 1960s the crude birth rate (live births per 1,000 population) remained in the high 20s, while the crude death rate (deaths per 1,000 population) declined from more than 10.6 in 1921 to 7.7 in 1961. Thereafter the rate of natural increase slowed, however, because of a sharp drop in the birth rate accompanied by a slight decrease in the death rate. The rate of natural increase is much lower than the world average and is about the same as those of the United States and Australia. Canada has an aging population. Whereas fewer than one in 10 Canadians were age 65 or older in the 1970s, by the start of the 21st century the figure stood at nearly one in six. Life expectancy in Canada, which averages about 80 years, is among the world’s highest.
- OFFICIAL NAME: Canada
- FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Federal parliamentary state
- CAPITAL: Ottawa
- POPULATION: 35,881,659
- OFFICIAL LANGUAGES: English, French
- MONEY: Canadian dollar
- AREA: 3,849,674 square miles (9,970,610 square kilometers)
- MAJOR MOUNTAIN RANGES: Rockies, Coast, Laurentian
- MAJOR RIVERS: St. Lawrence, Mackenzie
Canada is a vast and rugged land. From north to south it spans more than half the Northern Hemisphere. From east to west it stretches almost 4,700 miles (7,560 kilometers) across six time zones. It is the second largest country in the world, but it has only one-half of one percent of the world's population.
Canada features black-blue lakes, numerous rivers, majestic western mountains, rolling central plains, and forested eastern valleys. The Canadian Shield, a hilly region of lakes and swamps, stretches across northern Canada and has some of the oldest rocks on Earth.
Canada's far north lies in the frozen grip of the Arctic, where ice, snow, and glaciers dominate the landscape. Few trees grow here, and farming is not practical. Native Canadians, called First Nations people, live in this region by hunting and fishing.
Map created by National Geographic Maps
PEOPLE & CULTURE
In some ways Canada is many nations in one. Descendents of British and French immigrants make up about half the population. They were followed by other European and Asian immigrants. First Nations peoples make up about four percent of the population.
Inuit people live mostly in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. Many Native Canadians live on their traditional lands, but many others have moved to cities across Canada. First Nations artwork is widely recognized and is seen as a symbol of Canadian culture.
Canada's remote north and extensive forests are home to wildlife, from bears, wolves, beavers, deer, mountain lions, and bighorn sheep to smaller animals like raccoons, otters, and rabbits. The country's lakes and rivers, which contain about 20 percent of all fresh water on Earth, are full of fish such as trout and salmon.
Canada's prairies in the south are home to bison and pronghorn antelope. Farther north are Canada's sprawling evergreen forests, which have lots of wildlife, including moose and black bears. Even farther north is the cold, bare tundra, where herds of caribou and musk ox live.
Canadians work hard to protect the native wildlife. Canada has 41 national parks and three marine conservation areas. Nevertheless, species like wolves, lynx, and Atlantic fish have been overhunted and overfished.
GOVERNMENT & ECONOMY
The British monarch is the head of state of Canada. The monarch is represented by a governor-general, who has very limited powers. Laws are made by Canada's elected federal government, which includes a parliament and a prime minister.
Britain's Quebec Act of 1774 granted Quebec its own legal and religious rights. Despite this concession, many Quebec citizens have long sought independence. In votes held in 1980 and 1995, Quebec decided to stay in Canada. But the second vote was very close, and the debate is still alive.
Canada has provided fish, furs, and other natural resources to the world since the 1500s. Today, it is a world leader in agricultural production, telecommunications, and energy technologies. The vast majority of Canada's exports go to the United States.
#1 | ICELAND
Icelanders can sleep well at night: they live in the most peaceful country in the world. No news is good news when it comes to tranquil Iceland: it is the tenth year in a row that it retains the number one spot. With no standing army, navy or air force and the smallest population of any NATO member state (about 365,000 people), Iceland also enjoys record-low crime rates, an enviable education and welfare system and ranks among the best nations in terms of jobs and earnings and subjective sense of wellbeing.
Iceland has also managed the impossible: with 97% of the citizens describing themselves as middle and working class, tension between economic classes is often described as "non-existent." As for COVID-19, in just two months since the first case was recorded, the country had virtually eradicated the virus, keeping the cases well under 2,000 and the number of deaths at just 10. Is it really any wonder that Iceland is also one of the happiest countries in the world?