The Crusades that were known as “Holy wars,” were military campaigns of the Roman Catholic Church during the Middle Ages. Pope Urban II was the first pope who inspired people to the take part of the first crusade of 1095. The Pope's speech was so motivational; thousands of people took a cross and fastened it to their garments, hence the name “crusade”. The idea behind the first crusades was to restore Christian access to the Holy Land. The first crusade was very successful and ended with the capture of Jerusalem.
200 Year Struggle
After the first crusade took place, a 200 year long conflict ensued. The Christians established several Latin Christian states in the Holy Land, while the local Muslims fought back to regain what they considered to be theirs. The Crusaders had other Christian allies in the Byzantine Empire, but relations soured during the Third Crusade and escalated in the sack of Constantinople. By 1291, the Christian rule of the Holy Land had come to an end when the Mamluk dynasty in
Egypt destroyed Acre, the last stronghold.